mysql主从复制配置

Mysql实现主从配置和多主多从配置

我们现在模拟的是主从(1台主机、一台从机),其主从同步的原理,就是对bin-log二进制文件的同步,将这个文件的内容从主机同步到从机。

一、配置文件的修改

1、主机配置文件修改配置

我们首先需要mysql主机(192.168.254.130)的/etc/my.cnf配置文件,添加如下配置:

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  • #主机唯一ID
  • server-id=1
  • #二进制日志
  • log-bin=mysql-bin
  • #不需要同步的数据库
  • binlog-ignore-db=mysql
  • binlog-ignore-db=information_schema
  • #同步的数据库名称
  • binlog-do-db=mycat
  • #二进制的格式
  • binlog_format=STATEMENT
  • 我们看下目前整个my.cnf文件

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  • [root@localhost Desktop]# cat /etc/my.cnf
  • [mysqld]
  • datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data
  • basedir=/usr/local/mysql
  • socket=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysql.sock
  • user=mysql
  • # Disabling symbolic-links is recommended to prevent assorted security risks
  • symbolic-links=0
  •  
  • server-id=1
  • log-bin=mysql-bin
  • binlog-ignore-db=mysql
  • binlog-ignore-db=information_schema
  • binlog-do-db=mycat
  • binlog_format=STATEMENT
  •  
  •  
  • [mysqld_safe]
  • log-error=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.log
  • pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld/mysqld.pid
  • [root@localhost Desktop]#
  • 修改主机的配置文件后,我们需要通过命令重启下服务:

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  • [root@localhost support-files]# ls
  • magic  mysqld_multi.server  mysql-log-rotate  mysql.server
  • [root@localhost support-files]# pwd
  • /usr/local/mysql/support-files
  • [root@localhost support-files]# ./mysql.server restart
  • 然后我们修改下从机(192.168.254.131)的配置文件。

    2、从机的配置

    从机的配置修改比较简单:

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  • #从机机器唯一ID
  • server-id=2
  • #中继日志
  • relay-log=mysql-relay
  • 同样修改配置后,我们重启下从机

    二、mysql客户端命令操作

    下面我们可以通过命令连接到mysql的命令端:

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  • [root@localhost bin]#
  • [root@localhost bin]# pwd
  • /usr/local/mysql/bin
  • [root@localhost bin]# ./mysql -uroot -p
  • 1、主机操作

    1)、创建同步用户

    首先我们可以在主机创建一个专门用于主从同步用户,通过命令:

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  • GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO 'SLAVE'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY '123456';
  • 2)、查看同步文件状态

    然后我们通过show master status;查看主机的同步内容状态:

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  • mysql> show master status;
  • +------------------+----------+--------------+--------------------------+-------------------+
  • | File             | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB         | Executed_Gtid_Set |
  • +------------------+----------+--------------+--------------------------+-------------------+
  • | mysql-bin.000001 |      154 | mycat        | mysql,information_schema |                   |
  • +------------------+----------+--------------+--------------------------+-------------------+
  • 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
  • 2、从机操作

    1)、设置从机的主机

    执行如下命令,这里设置了我们与主机建立同步的相关信息

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  • CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST='192.168.254.130',
  • MASTER_USER='SLAVE',
  • MASTER_PASSWORD='123456',
  • MASTER_LOG_FILE='mysql-bin.000001',
  • MASTER_LOG_POS=430;
  • 这里如果提示已经设置了主机配置,可以通过stop slave&reset master进行重置。

    2)、启动同步

    下面我们再通过start slave开启同步:

    ​ 就可以看到:

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  • mysql> show slave status\G
  • *************************** 1. row ***************************
  •                Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
  •                   Master_Host: 192.168.254.130
  •                   Master_User: SLAVE
  •                   Master_Port: 3306
  •                 Connect_Retry: 60
  •               Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000001
  •           Read_Master_Log_Pos: 592
  •                Relay_Log_File: mysql-relay.000002
  •                 Relay_Log_Pos: 482
  •         Relay_Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000001
  •              Slave_IO_Running: Yes
  •             Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
  •               Replicate_Do_DB:
  •           Replicate_Ignore_DB:
  •            Replicate_Do_Table:
  •        Replicate_Ignore_Table:
  •       Replicate_Wild_Do_Table:
  •   Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table:
  •                    Last_Errno: 0
  •                    Last_Error:
  •                  Skip_Counter: 0
  •           Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 592
  •               Relay_Log_Space: 685
  •               Until_Condition: None
  •                Until_Log_File:
  •                 Until_Log_Pos: 0
  •            Master_SSL_Allowed: No
  •            Master_SSL_CA_File:
  •            Master_SSL_CA_Path:
  •               Master_SSL_Cert:
  •             Master_SSL_Cipher:
  •                Master_SSL_Key:
  •         Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
  • Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
  •                 Last_IO_Errno: 0
  •                 Last_IO_Error:
  •                Last_SQL_Errno: 0
  •                Last_SQL_Error:
  •   Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids:
  •              Master_Server_Id: 1
  •                   Master_UUID: 74397a99-accf-11eb-ae0d-000c2912d302
  •              Master_Info_File: /usr/local/mysql/data/master.info
  •                     SQL_Delay: 0
  •           SQL_Remaining_Delay: NULL
  •       Slave_SQL_Running_State: Slave has read all relay log; waiting for more updates
  •            Master_Retry_Count: 86400
  •                   Master_Bind:
  •       Last_IO_Error_Timestamp:
  •      Last_SQL_Error_Timestamp:
  •                Master_SSL_Crl:
  •            Master_SSL_Crlpath:
  •            Retrieved_Gtid_Set:
  •             Executed_Gtid_Set:
  •                 Auto_Position: 0
  •          Replicate_Rewrite_DB:
  •                  Channel_Name:
  •            Master_TLS_Version:
  • 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
  •  
  • mysql>
  • 这里我们可以看到Slave_IO_Running、Slave_SQL_Running都为YES,则成功了,如果是下面这种:

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  • *************************** 1. row ***************************
  •                Slave_IO_State: Connecting to master
  •                   Master_Host: 192.168.254.130
  •                   Master_User: slave
  •                   Master_Port: 3306
  •                 Connect_Retry: 60
  •               Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000001
  •           Read_Master_Log_Pos: 430
  •                Relay_Log_File: mysql-relay.000001
  •                 Relay_Log_Pos: 4
  •         Relay_Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000001
  •              Slave_IO_Running: Connecting
  •             Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
  •               Replicate_Do_DB:
  •           Replicate_Ignore_DB:
  •            Replicate_Do_Table:
  •        Replicate_Ignore_Table:
  •       Replicate_Wild_Do_Table:
  •   Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table:
  •                    Last_Errno: 0
  •                    Last_Error:
  •                  Skip_Counter: 0
  •           Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 430
  •               Relay_Log_Space: 154
  •               Until_Condition: None
  •                Until_Log_File:
  •                 Until_Log_Pos: 0
  •            Master_SSL_Allowed: No
  •            Master_SSL_CA_File:
  •            Master_SSL_CA_Path:
  •               Master_SSL_Cert:
  •             Master_SSL_Cipher:
  •                Master_SSL_Key:
  •         Seconds_Behind_Master: NULL
  • Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
  •                 Last_IO_Errno: 1045
  •                 Last_IO_Error: error connecting to master 'slave@192.168.254.130:3306' - retry-time: 60  retries: 1
  •                Last_SQL_Errno: 0
  •                Last_SQL_Error:
  •   Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids:
  •              Master_Server_Id: 0
  •                   Master_UUID:
  •              Master_Info_File: /usr/local/mysql/data/master.info
  •                     SQL_Delay: 0
  •           SQL_Remaining_Delay: NULL
  •       Slave_SQL_Running_State: Slave has read all relay log; waiting for more updates
  •            Master_Retry_Count: 86400
  •                   Master_Bind:
  •       Last_IO_Error_Timestamp: 210505 00:18:08
  •      Last_SQL_Error_Timestamp:
  •                Master_SSL_Crl:
  •            Master_SSL_Crlpath:
  •            Retrieved_Gtid_Set:
  •             Executed_Gtid_Set:
  •                 Auto_Position: 0
  •          Replicate_Rewrite_DB:
  •                  Channel_Name:
  •            Master_TLS_Version:
  • 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
  • 我们可以看到Last_IO_Error这里有错误,我们就可以去看下日志报的什么问题了,目前我这个是因为同步用户写错了才不能同步,按上面说的先停止同步重置,修改后同步命令,再操作一遍就可以了。

    三、主从同步测试

    1、主机创建库

    我们先在主机创建我们前面设置的要同步的数据库mycat:

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  • mysql> create database mycat;
  • Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
  •  
  • mysql> use mycat;
  • Database changed
  • mysql> show databases;
  • +--------------------+
  • | Database           |
  • +--------------------+
  • | information_schema |
  • | mycat              |
  • | mysql              |
  • | performance_schema |
  • | sys                |
  • +--------------------+
  • 5 rows in set (0.00 sec)
  •  
  • mysql>
  • 2、从机查看库

    然后我们就能在从机看到这个库了

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  • mysql> show databases;
  • +--------------------+
  • | Database           |
  • +--------------------+
  • | information_schema |
  • | mycat              |
  • | mysql              |
  • | performance_schema |
  • | sys                |
  • +--------------------+
  • 5 rows in set (0.00 sec)
  • 3、表数据的初始

    下面我们进行表数据的测试

    1)、主机
    首先我们再主机建立表并插入数据

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  • mysql> use mycat;
  • Database changed
  • mysql>
  • mysql> create table `test1`(
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