查看SQL在SQL SERVER数据库开发与维护中,有时需要了解指定数据库都有哪些表,这些表的字段的具体信息,例如字段名、字段长度、类型、是否索引、是否主键、字段说明等其他信息,在SQL SERVER中如何通过SQL语句获取这些字段信息呢?

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下面以SQL SERVER自带的数据库ReportServer为例

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  • SQL 代码   复制
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    use ReportServer
    Go 
    
    SELECT 
     表名=CASE WHEN C.column_id=1 THEN O.name ELSE N'' END, 
     表说明=ISNULL(CASE WHEN C.column_id=1 THEN PTB.[value] END,N''), 
     字段序号=C.column_id, 
     字段名=C.name,
     主键=ISNULL(IDX.PrimaryKey,N''), 
     标识=CASE WHEN C.is_identity=1 THEN N''ELSE N'' END, 
     计算列=CASE WHEN C.is_computed=1 THEN N''ELSE N'' END, 
     类型=T.name, 
     长度=C.max_length, 
     精度=C.precision, 
     小数位数=C.scale, 
     允许空=CASE WHEN C.is_nullable=1 THEN N''ELSE N'' END, 
     默认值=ISNULL(D.definition,N''), 
     字段说明=ISNULL(PFD.[value],N''), 
     索引名=ISNULL(IDX.IndexName,N''), 
     索引排序=ISNULL(IDX.Sort,N''), 
     创建时间=O.Create_Date, 
     修改时间=O.Modify_date 
    FROM sys.columns C 
     INNER JOIN sys.objects O 
         ON C.[object_id]=O.[object_id] 
             AND O.type='U' 
             AND O.is_ms_shipped=0 
     INNER JOIN sys.types T 
         ON C.user_type_id=T.user_type_id 
     LEFT JOIN sys.default_constraints D 
         ON C.[object_id]=D.parent_object_id 
             AND C.column_id=D.parent_column_id 
             AND C.default_object_id=D.[object_id] 
    LEFT JOIN sys.extended_properties PFD 
         ON PFD.class=1 
             AND C.[object_id]=PFD.major_id 
             AND C.column_id=PFD.minor_id 
    --             AND PFD.name='Caption'  -- 字段说明对应的描述名称(一个字段可以添加多个不同name的描述) 
     LEFT JOIN sys.extended_properties PTB 
         ON PTB.class=1 
             AND PTB.minor_id=0 
             AND C.[object_id]=PTB.major_id 
    --             AND PFD.name='Caption'  -- 表说明对应的描述名称(一个表可以添加多个不同name的描述) 
     LEFT JOIN                       -- 索引及主键信息 
     ( 
         SELECT 
             IDXC.[object_id], 
             IDXC.column_id, 
             Sort=CASE INDEXKEY_PROPERTY(IDXC.[object_id],IDXC.index_id,IDXC.index_column_id,'IsDescending') 
                 WHEN 1 THEN 'DESC' WHEN 0 THEN 'ASC' ELSE '' END, 
             PrimaryKey=CASE WHEN IDX.is_primary_key=1 THEN N''ELSE N'' END, 
             IndexName=IDX.Name 
         FROM sys.indexes IDX 
         INNER JOIN sys.index_columns IDXC 
    ON IDX.[object_id]=IDXC.[object_id] 
                 AND IDX.index_id=IDXC.index_id 
         LEFT JOIN sys.key_constraints KC 
             ON IDX.[object_id]=KC.[parent_object_id] 
                 AND IDX.index_id=KC.unique_index_id 
         INNER JOIN  -- 对于一个列包含多个索引的情况,只显示第1个索引信息 
         ( 
             SELECT [object_id], Column_id, index_id=MIN(index_id) 
             FROM sys.index_columns 
             GROUP BY [object_id], Column_id 
         ) IDXCUQ 
             ON IDXC.[object_id]=IDXCUQ.[object_id] 
                 AND IDXC.Column_id=IDXCUQ.Column_id 
                 AND IDXC.index_id=IDXCUQ.index_id 
     ) IDX 
         ON C.[object_id]=IDX.[object_id] 
             AND C.column_id=IDX.column_id 
    --WHERE O.name = 'KPI_ECSSSnapshot'
    --如果只查询指定表,加上此条件 
    ORDER BY O.name,C.column_id
    
    		
  • 查询到所有表的字段信息如图

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